International migration during the 19th century

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Additionally, the escalation of oil prices and the resulting economic boom in the Gulf region has led to a massive immigration to these countries to meet the demand for labour, though most of this is not permanent migration. There has also been a rise in labour migration to newly industrialised countries in Asia such as Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Singapore from poorer countries in Asia such as Burma and Bangladesh.

This phase of migration has features which differentiate it from earlier periods of migration. According to the UN, the proportion of women migrants has increased over the years. Whereas women traditionally migrated to join their partners or families or migrated together with their family in the earlier periods, an increasing number of women are migrating independently. These women are labour migrants, often the primary earners for their families. Another change is that unlike earlier phases when migration was more likely to end in permanent settlement, temporary and circular migration is again becoming more important.

People are more likely than in earlier periods to migrate more than once in their lives, to different countries, and to return to their original country. Include information, key phrases, words, events, key people and images from the following periods:. Skip to main content.

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About Glossary References. Tabs Content People often think of migration as a recent phenomenon. Migration within Europe, Africa and Asia 17thth centuries Permanent settlement in the colonies s to mid 19th century Slavery to the end of the 18th century Indentured labour Migration to the New World s Post WWII migration late s to s Post s migration Migration within Europe, Africa and Asia 17th century onwards Migration within Europe took place during the modern period as religious groups like the Jews and the Huguenots sought to escape persecution and for economic reasons as farmers migrated to find work in newly emerging industries.

Explain Explain 10 mins. Use these words within your answer, and use examples to illustrate your points: Persecution Circular Pilgrimage Trade. Describe Describe 15 mins. The Cheyenne chief, Black Kettle, and his associates who were slaughtered when they came for a peace council on September 28, , known as the Sand Creek massacre. Discuss 5 mins. Brainstorm things you have previously learnt about slavery. An illustration of a slave market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in shows children being sold to slavery.

In Maria Graham Journal of a voyage to Brazil and residence there, during part of the years , , , London. Explain 15 mins. Explain why indentured labour was seen as a replacement for slavery? How did the practice of indentured labour come to an end? A Typical Chinese Coolie employed to transport heavy goods during the American occupation of Phillipines, Irish family evicted by their landlord during the Irish potato famine at Moyasta, County Clare. Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland. Migrants riding outside a freight train in Mexico, Annotate Annotate 30 - 45 mins.

Sephardische Juden. Revolution and Migration after Alpine tourism. Although international migration receives more attention, the greater portion of mobility occurred within or between regions as people relocated their labor, material wealth, and cultural notions.

A history of migration

Fundamentally, shifts in migration patterns originate in changes in landholding, employment, demographic patterns, and the location of capital. Long-standing patterns of mobility changed about , when a marked population increase and proliferation of rural industry settled rural people in manufacturing towns and villages, while those in other regions took to the road.

The industrialization of the 19th century produced an urban society and high migration rates that subsequently abated in the 20th century. Internal migration represents a primary means of cultural transfer in history whereby people, goods, and ideas made their way from one region to another. Although movement across international borders receives a good deal of attention, the greater portion of human mobility occurred within or between regions in the same state as people brought their labor, habits, ideas, material wealth, and cultural notions from their home village or town.

This article draws on materials from France and Germany , but the themes and findings are applicable outside these two nation states. Moreover, in many cases systems of internal migration influence, and are influenced by, international migrations across state borders. Fundamentally, changes in migration patterns since the 17th century originate in large-scale changes in landholding patterns, employment demands, demographic patterns, and the location of capital.

Migration patterns were geographically uneven and temporally discontinuous. For example, the great changes in landholding patterns and rural work affected Britain and the Low Countries long before they came to the Eastern territories of Germany or the central highlands of France. Moreover, great port cities and their hinterland were in the forefront of the economic and social changes that reshaped migration itineraries. Temporally, continuity and change in migration patterns interplayed to produce changes in mobility patterns simultaneous with enduring migration traditions.

As a consequence, alongside new patterns of movement to new destinations, there existed familiar, long-standing migration itineraries.

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  4. Rates of migration varied by region but generally speaking persisted at a rate much higher than once thought in preindustrial economies, then peaked during the era of industrialization that preceded World War I. It is most useful to categorize migrations into four kinds of movement, defined by the distance of the move and the definitiveness of the break with home: 1. They were also perceived by themselves, their peers, and their superiors as suited for specific kinds of mobility; thus for much of history, men and women have distinct patterns of migration.

    Long-standing patterns of mobility held in the century before , when a marked population increase and proliferation of rural industry were to bring a widespread shift in migration patterns. Peasant ownership was important to landholding, population growth was generally insignificant, most rural production was for local consumption, and there was relatively little capital outside the great cities.

    [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    Yet movement was a normal part of rural routines as young people sought work in agriculture, harvest teams moved across the countryside, and people moved to marry or acquire land. Cities could not maintain their numbers without the intrepid newcomers who streamed through their gates. European family systems called for geographical mobility, particularly because men and women in northwestern Europe married relatively late and had a high rate of celibacy — in northwestern Europe , between the 17th and the early 18th century, generally speaking, men married in their late twenties and women in their mid-twenties and ten to even 20 per cent remained single.

    By contrast, marriage was nearly universal in Asia and women married quite young. In this rural world, most worked as farm servants if they left home — Gesinde in German areas, valets de ferme in France — most often on one-year contracts that allowed moving on as young people built their skills and reputation as workers, and searched for a mate. Marriage migration, like farm service, was built into the Western European family, since a taboo on incest prevented men and women from joining in wedlock with members of their own family; only in extraordinary cases were first cousins, for example, allowed to marry.

    Moreover, social norms dictated that one should marry someone of a similar social standing — and so a partner was often found outside one's own hamlet. If one desired, or was forced by circumstance, to leave home, local traditions provided the itineraries and the destination.

    And these could be far away. A village in the Haute-Marche of central France showed that while two-thirds of brides came from the parish and another quarter from less than ten kilometers away, many of the grooms had been to Paris working as masons with their compatriots. The parish records of some villages and towns show no trace of many men and women after their birth; some of these departed people are precisely the migrants upon whom the early modern city depended for its survival, since the city in this age was a site of more deaths than births and could not maintain its numbers without the arrival of new migrants.

    Indeed, the city was more dependent on newcomers that it would be in later centuries; they were sites of disaster, especially in the 17th century in northern Europe , due to the depredations of the Thirty Years' War, the Fronde in France, and Louis XIV's — wars in the Low Countries and western Germany. Urban natural decrease is a demographic fact, but migration is a social and economic phenomenon, so newcomers came to the city not to compensate for deceased children but to seek a livelihood.

    The early modern city was more than a deathtrap to the newcomer, who was the "lynchpin of the urban economy". For example, a Parisian printer's workshop in the late s gave something of a livelihood to two apprentices and a host of insecurely employed journeymen as well as maids and the master's family — apprentices and journeymen were likely to be newcomers, as were the untold numbers of migrant women who waited on households, performed menial tasks in workshops and prayed behind convent walls.

    Global Migration's Rapid Rise

    Indeed, women were in the majority in most western European cities. For example, the French city of Lille in enumerated only 79 men for every women in a census that counted valets and maidservants as adults. West of the Elbe , only a few cities, like the Prussian military center of early modern Berlin , housed more men than women. The citizenship lists of cities from Berlin south to Marseille show that the "respectable" portion of society commanded a regional draw, because there were intimate connections between urban and rural elites, and among the elites of various towns.

    Thirty-nine per cent of the bourgeois of the Norman city of Caen were migrants in , yet most migrants were less prosperous petits gens. These permanent departures were, in the late 17th century, the bulk of rural young people who could be spared by their family and village. Two sea-changes in western Europe modified the 17th-century patterns of scarce population, a mobile countryside, and cities that could only hold their own or slightly increase. The demographic base grew as the population began to rise consistently, recovering from the disasters of the previous century.

    Between and , the population of Germany using the borders less Alsace and Lorraine increased from In some places, earlier and more widespread marriage produced more children.

    click here In addition, industrial production proliferated in the countryside, employing this growing population and abetting its growth by underwriting new marriages. Rural manufacture for distant markets expanded to unprecedented peaks as villages filled the orders of urban merchants for such products as thread, cloth, nails, and tools.

    Migration in the preindustrial era, 1650–1750

    Textiles and linen in particular employed the most workers. Manufacture expanded enormously in the lower Rhineland as well between and Farther to the east, rural people in Saxony and Silesia spun flax and wove linen. In the west, the densely-populated and rich plain of Flanders was the center of linen manufacture where linen production tripled from to , employing three out of four villagers. Likewise, the success of a cotton-linen blend called siamoise in the Rouen area expanded the number of fabric workers from about 57, to over , in fifty years, so that nearly one-third of the population of upper Normandy worked in textiles by Wool and cotton production also increased, as did silk in southern France.

    This massive employment took on a particular shape: eight or more spinners supplied one weaver and some manufacturers employed thousands of villagers from headquarters in towns and cities. In many cases, production depended on men's off-season weaving and the spinning of their wives and daughters. Since women supplied the labor for spinning, they thus provided the majority of workers to textile production.

    Each of these developments had dramatic consequences for long-standing patterns of migration.

    Rural industry had a distinct and complex impact on European mobility because it enabled people to earn necessary money while remaining in the countryside and working outside agriculture. It also produced manufacturing villages that attracted and retained newcomers, while reducing the geographic and economic divisions between town and country. Foremost, rural manufacturing enabled country people to find work in a village setting, thriving because it matched chronic rural underemployment to urban merchant capital.

    For those whose age and gender fitted the tasks in hand, there was no need for the kind of seasonal migration that supported montagnard harvest teams, for example. Ironically, migration allowed the establishment of rural industry because the freedom to settle was at the core of its proliferation.


    Production flourished where people were free to reside where they chose and where legal systems and landholding patterns made it possible to divide holdings, build new cottages, and occupy a variety of buildings. Where feudalism restricted free movement, rural industry arrived only in regions like Silesia, where it was incorporated into the feudal obligations of the serf.

    While emigration from manufacturing areas slowed as production expanded, migration increased elsewhere because the population grew in regions without strong manufacturing as well, although less dramatically.

    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century International migration during the 19th century
    International migration during the 19th century

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